HOME+GRDN Weekly Editor’s Review: Office Chair from the manufacturer

Aquascape hobbyists trade plants, conduct contests, and share photographs and information via the Internet.[3][4][5] The United States-based Aquatic Gardeners Association has about 1,200 members. Her numerous private estate projects include the landmark Dumbarton Oaks in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C..[10] Since that time, other architects — most notably Ruth Havey and Alden Hopkins—changed certain elements of the Farrand design. Landscape engineering is the interdisciplinary application of engineering and other applied sciences to the design and creation of anthropogenic landscapes. The term landscape architecture was invented by Gilbert Laing Meason in 1828, and John Claudius Loudon (1783–1843) was instrumental in the adoption of the term landscape architecture by the modern profession. It differs from, but embraces traditional reclamation.

The first is closure planning – which includes goal setting and design of the landscape as a whole. Landscape architecture continues to develop as a design discipline, and to respond to the various movements in architecture and design throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. A practitioner in the profession of landscape architecture is called a landscape architect.

It can also be described as green engineering, but the design professionals best known for landscape engineering are landscape architects. Thomas Church was a mid-century landscape architect significant in the profession. She was design consultant for over a dozen universities including: Princeton in Princeton, New Jersey; Yale in New Haven, Connecticut; and the Arnold Arboretum for Harvard in Boston, Massachusetts. Some scholars consider Downing to be The Father of American Landscape Architecture, although others choose Frederick Law Olmsted. The practical, aesthetic, horticultural, and environmental sustainability components merit Landscape design inclusion. Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor public areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioral, or aesthetic outcomes.[2] It involves the systematic investigation of existing social, ecological, and soil conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions that will produce the desired outcome. Factors in designing also include subjective qualities such as: genius loci (the special site qualities to emphasize); client's needs and preferences; desirable plants and elements to retain on site, modify, or replace, and available to use as borrowed scenery from beyond; artistic composition from perspectives of both looking upon and being in the *gardens; spatial development and definition; plant palettes in designed layouts, and artistic focal points for enjoyment. The most valuable contribution can be made at the first stage of a project to generate ideas with technical understanding and creative flair for the design, organization, and use of spaces. This system became the foundation of today's Geographic Information Systems (GIS).